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Eric Evenson: Good evening everyone.
Can everybody hear me OK? Great.
Thanks. And I also appreciate you
coming out on such a rainy, and windy,
and cold night to hear about the Water
Census. Just starting out with a little
levity. Dan mentioned that I went to
the University of Nebraska, and grew up in Nebraska.
And of course in Nebraska you know our
saying is, the N stands for knowledge.
OK. I want to talk to you tonight about
a program in the USGS that we call The
National Water Census. And what is a
Water Census? Well, first of all it's
part of our strategic plan. In 2007 we
completed a strategic plan that covers
what you see on the right hand side of
the screen there.
And one of the major themes of that is
a Water Census for the United States,
quantifying, forecasting, and securing
fresh water for our Nation’s
Our objective as part of the Water
Census is to place technical
information and tools into the hands of
stakeholders allowing them to answer
two primary questions about water
availability. Does the nation have
enough fresh water to meet both human
as well as ecological needs?
And will the water be present to meet
the future needs. And when we say
stakeholders we think of that very
broadly. Our stakeholders are the
public. They are also the water
management agencies who struggle with
these questions from a regulatory of
planning basis and the like.
There are also the biological resources
managers and stakeholders. And the non-
governmental agencies organizations
that care about these resources very
deeply. Just to give you a definition
on water availability analysis, what
we're talking about there is the
process of determining the quantity and
timing characteristics of water, which
is of sufficient quality to meet both
human and ecological needs.
That's kind of the core of the analysis that
managers struggle with in determining
do we have enough water? Is it of
adequate quality? Is it there at the
times that we needed in order to satisfy these needs.
I also want to just emphasize that
water availability analysis is part
technical information, but it's also
socioeconomic considerations, legal,
regulatory, and even political
considerations that have to be taken into account.
And at USGS we deal with the technical
information aspect of it. So, at USGS
we don't make determinations of water
availability, we help others make
determinations of water availability
and we do that through providing the
technical information, the technical
basis for those analysis.
You'll hear me talk a little bit about
an initiative called WaterSMART, and
that's kind of a label for us and a
brand. And so, what is WaterSMART? It's
a Department of Interior budget
initiative on water availability and
conservation that is coordinated out of
our Office of the Assistant Secretary
for Water and Science.
That's the Assistant Secretary that's
over both the US Geological Survey and
the Bureau of Reclamation. That
individual is Anne Castle and within
the USGS the main activity that's
associated with the WaterSMART funding
initiative is the National Water Census.
Over the Bureau of Reclamation they
actually have three major activities:
associated with the first are river
basin supply and demand studies that
are designed to dovetail with what
we're doing in the water census.
A program called "Title 16" that
provides funding for communities to do
water reclamation and water reuse. Such
things as building desalination
facilities or advance treatment for
waste water, so that it can be reused as a water supply.
And then they also have their
WaterSMART brands, which are
conservation grants that are given out
to entities to conduct water
conservation activities. And they have
brought goals associated with each of these.
So, one question also that probably
comes up is, 'how did we get to this
point where we're talking about a
national census of water in the
country'. And for those of you who have
been involved is this field for some
time, you may remember back to the
1960s and 70s when there was an entity
called the US Water Resources
And the USGS was a
participating agency in the US Water
Resources Council. The council used to
put out the decadal analysis of water
availability for the country. The last
one of which was put out in 1978. The
council was disbanded as an
organization in 1980.
And since that time there is not been a
comprehensive national assessment of
water availability in over 30 years.
So, we feel that it is really high time
that a program like the water census
gets underway. In 2002 Congress asked
us to produce a national framework so
to speak, a national plan for how we
would approach an assessment of water
availability and use across the
And we produced that and it's published
in our circular 1223. In 2005 directly
associated with the release of the
recommendations in circular 1223
Congress funded a pilot study on water
availability in the Great Lakes.
And some of you might ask, hmm water
availability in the Great Lakes, a
place that's got about one fifth of
available fresh water - flowing fresh
water present there. The chairman of
our appropriations committee who
commissioned these studies was from the Great Lakes Basin.
So, it seemed like a good place to do
the pilot study. Then that study lasted
for five years, and I will be talking
about a number of the products that
came out of the pilot study tonight. In
2007 our strategic plan of our agency
came out with the Water Census as the
one of the major six themes in the
In 2007 also a report came
out of the office of science and
technology policy -- their sub-
committee on water availability and
equality -- and it outlined the roles
of all federal agencies on working on
water availability and identify the
activities in the USGS as promoting -in
terms of promoting the need for a Water Census.
Probably even a significant thing that
has occurred in the last decade on
getting us to where we're at now and
the last year and the Water Census is
the passage of the Secure Water Act.
This happened in 2009. SECURE in this
case is an acronym; it stands for
Science and Engineering to
Comprehensively Understand and
Responsibly Enhance water.
And the acronym is sometimes hard to
remember. Also in 2009 the National
Research Council released a report
called “towards a sustainable and
secure water future.” And that report
also highlighted the need for a
national water census.
And then finally in 2011, the President
included in his budget request to
Congress the WaterSMART initiative to
jumpstart activities both in the USGS
as well as the Bureau of Reclamation.
So, how do we go about accounting for
water availability from a technical
perspective? Well, we use something
called the 'water budget'. And the
water budget is really very similar to
the budget that you all for your
finances at home.
It accounts for all the inputs and the
outputs from a given watershed just the
same as your family budget accounts for
all the inputs and all the deposits and
withdrawals from your account. And it
looks at how much is in storage or how
much reserve you might have in your accounts.
And the types of factors that influence
it. So, just to highlight a couple of
those aspects, the green arrows
represents exchanges with the
atmosphere, precipitation coming into
the watershed, evapotranspiration going
out, the amount of water that's
evaporated or transpired by plants and trees.
The blue arrows represent exchanges of
water within the watershed or between
the surficial system in the ground
water. So, it includes fresh water
inflow and outflow, ground water
surface water interaction, exchanges
between deep ground water systems and
shallow, and the flow through the
ground water system.
And finally the gray arrows represent man's
influence on water availability -- are
withdrawals from ground water and
surface water, and are return of some
of that water back to the land surface
through such things as waste water
return flows, agricultural return
flows, or irrigation.
So, our effort in the Water Census is
to start quantifying each one of these
exchanges. We can write simple or
complex equations that represent each
one of these exchanges in the
environment. And we can look at those
interactions either on very large
scales or very small scales.
Or over long time periods or short time
periods. In our effort in the Water
Census is going to be to look at that
on relatively small scales and short
time periods and aggregate that
So, let's look at that a little bit.
First of all we want to deliver a
nationwide system that allows users to
access all of this information about
water supply. And when I say the supply
cited the equation, I mean all the
things that bring the water or affect
water on the natural landscape –
storage, reservoirs, lakes, ice in
snowfield, surface water flows, ground
water flows -- including things like
recharge rates -- and changes in water
levels of aqua forms.
And we also want to look at all the
factors on what we call the demand side
of the equation. How is water used and
one certainly very important aspect
among those are the ecological water
How much water do we need to lead in
the environment to maintain a healthy
ecosystem. As well as what are the
human uses of water? The withdrawals,
the return flows, how do we
consumptively use water, and what are
our run of the river uses?
So, let's talk a little bit about how
we go about delivering that
information. Well, today you can
download this map of our USGS Website.
If you go to our Water Watch homepage
that's listed right here at the bottom.
You can download the map, and the data
behind this map that gives you
estimated monthly runoff for every “HUC
8,” (and I’ll explain to you what that
is in just a second) For every
watershed at the HUC 8 level,
throughout the entire lower 48 states –
- and in not too long a time we'll be
able to include Hawaii, Alaska, and the
Caribbean Islands in this as well.
[Editor’s note: HUC stands for
“Hydrologic Unite Code”
But today you can download this
map and it gives you estimated runoff
for every one of those watersheds
throughout the country. And you could
not only download that for this month,
you can download it historically for
every month back to 1900.
Let's say, that if you're working on
water management issues and you really
need water estimates at a finer scale,
and monthly information isn't good
enough for you, you need daily
information. You might want to have
this in hand. And that's part of what
we're going to do under the Water Census.
So, let's envision that under the Water
Census you were able to download data
on precipitation, runoff, base flow,
evapotranspiration, recharge, changes
in surface water storage, down to a
watershed equivalent to 35 square miles
every 35 square mile watershed across
And not only on a monthly basis, but
daily information on this of all these
factors that influence the water
budget. That's one of the goals that
we're shooting for under the Water
Census. Now, we'll be talking about the
activities that we have underway to get there.
As well, you want to be able to work
with this information, so we will be
designing and building a Website
interface on similar to the web
interface that we use in our stream
stats program. Some of you may be
familiar with that program where you
would be able to select an area on the
screen, point and click.
Have the system delineate the watershed
above that point. And then generate all
the information about the water
accounting components and deliver that
information to the Website for you.
Then you'd be able to work with online
tools to construct your own water
budget of that area.
And maybe even change some of the
parameters to see what kind of
influence that would have. And then
also, access information about trends
in those water availability parameters
going back 30 years.
That's the system that we're designing.
Now we have to do various things in
order to accomplish these because even
though we run approximately 7700 stream
gauges across the country, that by no
means gives us estimates of flow down
to the scales that we're talking about.
So, one of the things that we're doing
as part of this program is developing
the means of estimating flows at un-
gauged stations across the country. So,
that any place on the landscape you'd
be able to point and click, and get
estimate of the flow, not just flow
characteristics or flow statistics, but
actual daily flow values for that piece
of the landscape.
We're also working on similar efforts
for evapotranspiration. And as I
mentioned evapotranspiration is the
amount of water that evaporates off the
landscape, or is transpired by plants.
And those of you familiar with that I'm
sure you know that in many places
throughout the world,
evapotranspiration accounts to more
than 50% of the rainfall.
So if you think about that: rainfall is
our source of water, it's our source of
fresh water in this country and
throughout the world. And about 50% of
that or more in most places in the
world evaporates off or is transpired
by plants into the atmosphere.
So, this is a very important aspect of
the water budget to be able to
quantify. We're working in two efforts
on evapotranspiration. One is to just
look at as a broad landscape feature,
how much water is evaporated off the
landscape for an entire
But then another aspect of
evapotranspiration is we enhance how
much water evaporates, where we
irrigate agriculture. We're bringing
water in, we're importing it to an
area, we're using it to say, irrigate
crops and grow crops off in an areas
that are arid where the ET rates are
And those plants are transpiring water
off that. We also need to get an
estimate of the amount of ET that's
associated with irrigated cropland
because it's an important part of the
water budget and it's also an important
measure of the consumptive use
associated with the irrigated agriculture.
Another activity that we need to do, to
be able to deliver this information is
we really need to enhance our
understanding throughout the nation of
And here I'm talking about human water
usage. How much water do we withdraw,
transport, consume, and return to the
environment. And we're going to be
using new methods for estimating water
use across the country.
More use of statistical models like
regression models, you're going to be
developing models of how we can relate
water use, human water use to land use
characteristics. And ultimately what we
want to be able to do is we want to
develop the ability to track the drop
of water that humans use from the point
where it's withdrawn, until it's
ultimately returned to the environment.
So, what are some of the things we need
to do in order to do this? Well, first
I want to just introduce this concept
of what we call ‘conveyance’ and water
use tracking. And envision that this is
a simplistic watershed view here. And
some place within the watershed we pump
water out of the ground and we use it
to integrate cropland, OK?
Now, because we're irrigating that
cropland we're enhancing the amount of
consumptive use. So, that's going to
reduce ground water or surface water
resources as a result of that activity.
We need to be able to quantify that. In
other places we may establish a
community water system and pump that
water up to a piece of landscape where
there's a residential development.
And let's say it's residential
development that's on an un-sewered
land where they're using septic
systems. And that residential piece of
land overlaps a drainage basin.
So, some of that water ultimately gets
to return back through septic system
flow, but the part that's out of the
basin is now a out of basin withdraw to
the flow at that gauging station.
And then we also have the
circumstances where we pump water to
sewered land and the waste water after
it's treated in discharge wholly
without outside of the basin, and
that's a complete deplete of withdrawal to this basin.
So, our water use program in the
country has to be able to characterize
all these kinds of conditions and
account for the human infrastructure
from moving water around. This can get
to be very complex because in this
schematic diagram a water supply
system, you may have a surface water
source and multiple sets of well field
in various parts of the system, that
ultimately distribute water to the
population where they use it. And then
the wastewater will be collected and
discharged in another location. So,
this is the whole idea of being able to
track water through the human
infrastructure. As I mentioned this can
get to be very complex. And this
diagram that's done in the hydrologic
unit code six-digit basin for the upper
Colorado demonstrates just how complex
that can become. Now, just to orient
you over on the right hand side here
would be Rocky Mountain National Park
in the continental divide, OK.
So, the city of Denver is right of over
here. And then this watershed stretches
over to about Grand Junction, Colorado,
so we have all the landscape in
between. And the dots that you see in
the map are the 12,500 irrigation
diversions that occur within the
Colorado River Basin.
Some of those are carrying water outside of the basin to
satisfy irrigation needs. And just
zooming in a little bit on the Vail,
Colorado area you can see the number of
diversions and the complexity that occurs with this.
And as I mentioned, these are just the
irrigation diversions, it doesn't
include water use for other types of
needs. So, what kinds of water use
needs do we include in our analysis?
Well, this bar chart shows the
magnitude of freshwater and salt-water
withdrawals for various human uses
across the country.
And they're in ranked order. 49 percent
of all the withdrawals in this country
are used for thermal electric power
generation. That's a lot of times
surprising to people, but extremely
large volumes of water have to be
withdrawn for thermal electric power
Now once through cooling facilities
much of that water -the vast
majority of it is returned back to the
stream unevaporated - but in the case
of facilities have a cooling tower and
the like, much of the water that's
withdrawn will be evaporated. It
depends largely on the technology that they used.
31 percent of all the water that's
withdrawn in the country is used for
irrigation. And irrigation is the 800-
pound gorilla when it comes to
consumptive use because the vast
majority of that water is either
evaporated or transpired by plants.
So, these two categories alone account
for 80 percent of all the water use in
the United States. 11 percent is used
for public supply, so this is the water
that we used in our homes, plus the
water that's withdrawn and delivered to
industries and commercial
establishments within the service area
those public community systems supply.
And then self-supplied industrial water
accounts for an additional 4 percent.
So, 95 percent of all the water that's
withdrawn in the country are from those
four categories. Then we have four
small categories including self-
supplied domestic, that's -everybody
who has their own individual domestic well.
Livestock which is less than 1 percent,
mining which is about 1 percent, and
aqua culture which is 2 percent. Let me
just go back briefly, we've been
accumulating information on water use
at the USGS for a very long time, since
1950. And every five years we put out a
report called ‘Compilation of Water Use
in the United States.’
And just want to give you a quotation
from the National Research Council
report on the significance that they
see in this data that we produce. And
this is a direct quote.
"This “reports estimated water use in
the United States, have been published
every five years since the 1950s and
are one of the most widely cited
publications of the USGS." So, it's a
very significant activity and effort
that we have and one that we need to
even do a better job on if we are going
to deliver a good Water Census.
Part of what we do with these data is
we are able to look at trends in the
country. And I think this is a very
interesting chart -- kind of
surprising to a lot of people to know
that this line is our population growth
since 1950 through 2005.
And of course population is along over
here on the right axis. On the left
axis are hundreds of billions of
gallons of withdrawal. And you'll
notice that was rising very rapidly
until about 1980.
And then it dropped and leveled off
during that time. So, actually over
this entire period our per capita use
of water has actually decreased since
1980. And this is due to a variety of
factors including regulatory programs
that were put in place, water
conservation activities, industry
cutting back on the amount of water
that they use so that they produce less
waste water that would have to be treated and the like.
I want to go on to another type of
water use -a very important type of
water use that people often don't think
about. It's become much more present in
our thoughts in the last two decades,
but prior to that got little play and a
little accounting in our water availability analysis.
And that was the water needs for
wildlife and habitat. We refer to this
as ‘ecological water science’ or
‘ecological flow science.’
And it's a rapidly developing research area
throughout the world and one that were
very interested here at the USGS. Some
of the things that we want to be able
to provide to the country are
classification system so that we can
classify our water bodies as to their
hydro ecological type.
What type of aquatic environment do our
rivers support? We also want to produce
tools and data that allow managers to
systematically assess ecological
effects of change in the hydrology.
When they alter it, what happens?
Do we still have the same species there
that we did before? How does that
change? And we want to assist users in
developing water alteration flow
alteration ecological response
relationships, which are kind of the
building blocks that people use for
ultimately setting ecological flow
objectives. And again we at USGS don't
set those flow objectives, but states
are very active and interested in this
process today. Along with non-
governmental organizations, like the
Nature Conservancy. OK. Other things
that we have to do in the Water Census,
we need to expand our activities in
assessing groundwater swell in water availability.
What we do throughout the country is we
are systematically analyzing what we
refer to as principle aquifers. These
shaded areas on this colored map
represent the 63 principal aquifers
that account for the vast majority of
ground water usage throughout the country.
And actually the top 30 of those, the
30 principle aquifers if ranked in
water-use order account for 94% of all
the groundwater that's used in the
So, understanding what
happens in these three-dimensional
systems is an extremely important part
of the Water Census and how that water
is moved to the surface, how it's used,
and how it's disposed off.
So, we need to know things such as
recharge values, groundwater yields,
changes in storage, trends in
groundwater indices and groundwater and
surface water interactions to name a
And we will do that through
strengthening the USGS programs for
studying groundwater availability.
Another issue that we're called to do
as part of the Secure Water Act is,
Congress told us “we would like to know
about the Nation's brackish groundwater resources.”
So, those are all the areas of
groundwater throughout the United
States that are too salty to use
directly either for public supply, or
in many cases even for irrigation or
And they're quite widely distributed
throughout the country. Most times
these resources are deep and the color
coding is showing you the depth to
saline water in these various areas.
They tend to be areas that we don't
know a lot about from a water supply perspective.
Most of the people would drill into
these are looking for energy supplies.
They're looking for oil or they're
looking for natural gas and that's
where a lot of the data on this has historically come from.
So, Congress has asked us, we want to
know the locations of the resource, the
hydrologic and water quality
properties, and currently who's using
them. And there are communities they're
using saline groundwater and treating
it for their water supply. But of
course that tends to be a very expensive proposition.
We also of course want to know the
issue about quality, what is water
quality's role in water availability?
How does water quality impairment limit
our access to water?
And it doesn't have to be so bad that
you can't use the water, it just has to
be bad enough to make it more
expensive. And all of a sudden your
influencing decisions that people make
about water availability due to water quality.
So, we want to use the strength of the
USGS water quality programs to
determine the degree to which water
quality impairs water availability.
Define the main compounds that are
important to analyze, relate water use,
relate water quality to water use in
return flows and look at the trends.
The last aspect I'm going to talk about
tonight relative to the Water Census is
we've developed a notion of conducting
focused water availability assessments
in smaller watersheds rather than
tackling the entire Nation at once so
that we can learn certain things about
how to relate some of this information
and integrate it together to give us a
comprehensive picture of water
And so, in basins like the Colorado
River Basin, we've been working with
state, local, and regional stakeholders
to define a set of technical questions
that are important to understand about
these watersheds in order to better
understand water availability.
And then we bring the various programs
that the USGS to bare on answering
those questions and developing a
comprehensive picture. We have three
basins that we're concentrating on
right now. The Apalachicola
Chattahoochee Flint River Basins in the southeast.
It's the last time I'll say it in long
hand, it's the ACF Basin for short. For
those of you who don't know where that
is, that's in the Atlanta area and
south out there. The Colorado River
Basin, and the Delaware in the
And there are some important aspects of
these basins of why they were selected
and what about water availability
stresses makes these basins good areas
to study. In the Delaware, even though
the Delaware River Basin represents .4%
of the land area of the country, it
delivers water to 15 million people, 5%
of the U.S. population.
And a lot of that is because of water
basin withdrawals. It has had two
supreme court decrees dividing up the
water amongst the various parties that
use it. It has abundant endangered
aquatic species that are at risk within
the basin and you may have read
recently with the development of the
Marcellus Natural Gas Shale play.
There are looming issues with regard to
natural gas development in the upper
basin. In the ACF there has been.
I'm sure you remember the Georgia
Florida Alabama water wars, the
competition over the resource in
particular, a tug of war between public
supply and agriculture in the Basin.
Much state litigation that's still
going on today.
In the Colorado, it's got a very fast
growing population within the basin.
Lots of energy development. It's the
backbone of hydropower for the
southwest and we've had declining river
flows over the last 15 years.
So, that is kind of my overview of the
Water Census and our plans. I want to
give you a little picture of the work
that we did in the Great Lakes. And
then we'll open it up for questions.
So, we conducted this pilot study
within the Great Lakes basin, and
that's an aerial photograph of the
basin, of course.
All of the products that you're going
to see are available through our
This study and all of our studies we
feel that it is our obligation both to
look at the national emphasis
associated with it.
But also provide the regional focus of
what kind of information can we deliver
that's relevant and usable to regional
and local managers. And biological
resource managers. We developed methods
that were applicable to the national
level, but we responded to Great Lakes
issues and some of you may know that
there's a Great Lakes Compact that has,
as one of its focuses, water availability.
So, a couple of the products that came
out of that. Well, one thing was that
stakeholders within the basin wanted to
get a much greater current and more
accurate definition of regional
recharge within the basin.
Because much of the water that's used
within this basin does not come from
the lakes themselves, it comes from
ground water resources or small streams
on the landscape where the water is
So, understanding how recharge varies
across the landscape was a very
important factor. Another one with
regard to groundwater, are how are the
groundwater divides within the basin
shifting over time as a result of pumpage.
Now just to orient you on this, of
course here's the Chicago area. This
line here, this dotted line comes very
close into the lake and then back out.
That's the surface water divide for the
basin. The historical groundwater
divides were a little bit further out.
So, water, groundwater on this side was
flowing towards the lakes.
But as a result of a lot of the pumpage
within the Great Lakes basin we've been
pulling those groundwater divides
further to the west. And with that, we
change the flow regime to the lakes. It
was important for us to document that,
and that has become part of the
regulatory considerations that the
Great Lakes Basin uses.
You may have read about some of the
interstate lawsuits that were happening
over the Waukesha area. Another issue
in the Great Lakes is just how had the
natural trends manifest themselves over
the last 50 years.
And interestingly the gold circles are
streamgages where base flow has been
increasing over the last 50 years. And
you'll notice that the vast majority of
the places depicted on this map stream
flows is actually increasing over
Well, that can be associated
with the climate signal. A climate
signal in which more water is
evaporating off the lakes and falling
as precipitation on the landscape. And
this is the issue that we're looking at very carefully.
Stream flows have been showing distinct
increase over that 50-year time in most
parts of the basin. Another issue
that's been very present is lake-level
variability. Some of you may have read
that within the last decade, water
levels in Lake Superior have fallen so
low that oar boats carrying or through
Sue Saint Marie Canal have to go
through partially loaded.
Because there's not enough draft, not
enough hydrologic stage to get those
barges through fully loaded. Likewise,
lake-levels have been dropping in the
Lake Michigan and Lake Heron
So, the stakeholders within
the basin said: 'we'd like to see how
lake-level variability within the last
measured record', and that's this
little part right over here that's the
last 150 years ‘relates to the long
term paleo record.’ So, we put together
a 5,000-year history of lake-level
variability in the Great Lakes Basin.
And you can see that actually in
current time, we're pushing the bottom
of the limit in terms of where lake-
level variability has been since just post the last Ice Age.
Another issue in the Great Lakes that's
very important to them, they manage
based upon consumptive use in the
basin. And if you are going to develop
a new project in the Great Lakes that
has more than 5 million gallons per day
of consumptive use, your project has to
be elevated to all eight Governors and
two provincial Governors in Canada for
review before that project can be
approved. So, a very important
issue was, what are appropriate
consumptive use co-efficients to be use
in the basin? How do theirs compare
with climatically similar areas
throughout the country? And how does
consumptive use vary on a seasonal and
And so this was part of the products
that we developed in the Great Lakes.
And then of course we put together an
overall water budget for the entire
system. And just a couple of highlights
that come out of that, of course we
assess groundwater as resource, and
groundwater within the Great Lake
system is on the magnitude of adding an
entire another Great Lake.
And of course it's in the tens of
trillions of gallons flowing in the
system. The annual outflow of the Great
Lakes is 1% of the storage. So, the
amount of water that's going out
through the same Saint Lawrence seaway
represents about 1% of all the water
that is stored in the system.
Water-use throughout all the Great
Lakes amounts to about 65,000 cubic
feet per second, a relatively small
amount of that annual outflow. And the
consumptive use is about 3,000 cubic
feet per second. Now that just puts it
in perspective in terms of an entire
watershed the size of the Great Lakes.
Does that mean that water use and
consumptive use are not important?
Absolutely not. Because we not only as
water managers need to look at the
entire system, but how that plays out
within our local watersheds. So, this
is just giving you an overall
As I mentioned our reports
through the Great Lakes study are
available on this Website. This
represents the approximately 15
technical products that were produced
as part of the Great Lake study over
the five-year period. And I invite you
and urge you to go and take a look at
the Great lakes Website and the work
that we've done there.
And I just want to conclude by saying,
again our objective as part of the
Water Census is to place technical
information and tools into the hands of
our stakeholders, stakeholders defined
broadly, so that they can answer the
questions that they're facing about water availability.
Again, my name is Eric Evenson, I'm the
Water Census coordinator. I am located
in beautiful Trenton, New Jersey about
three hours north of here. And there is
my phone number and my Email address.
And I'd be happy to answer any
questions that you have. Thank you.
Title: Water in the 21st Century: The National Water Census
Eric Evenson, coordinator of the National Water Census discuses a new set of water resource challenges brought on by the 21st century. Even in normal water years, water shortages and use conflicts have become commonplace in many areas of the United States — especially competition among crop irrigation, growing cities and communities, and energy production. Over the next 10 years, the USGS plans to conduct a new assessment of water availability and use. This national Water Census will address critical aspects of recent Federal legislation, including the need to establish a national water assessment program.
Location: Reston, VA, USA
Date Taken: 12/1/2011
Video Producer: Melanie K. Gade , U.S. Geological Survey
Note: This video has been released into the public domain by the U.S. Geological Survey for use in its entirety. Some videos may contain pieces of copyrighted material. If you wish to use a portion of the video for any purpose, other than for resharing/reposting the video in its entirety, please contact the Video Producer/Videographer listed with this video. Please refer to the USGS Copyright section for how to credit this video.
For more information go to: Public Lecture Series: Science in Action
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