Earthquake Hazards Program

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Filter Total Items: 2,129
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Year Published: 2021

The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Societal Consequences

The HayWired earthquake scenario, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), anticipates the impacts of a hypothetical moment magnitude 7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault. The fault runs along the east side of California’s San Francisco Bay and is among the most active and dangerous in the United States, passing through a densely urbanized and...

Wein, Anne M.; Jones, Joseph L.; Johnson, Laurie A.; Kroll, Cynthia; Strauss, Jennifer A.; Witkowski, David; Cox, Dale A.
Wein, A.M., Jones, J.L., Johnson, L.A., Kroll, C., Strauss, J., Witkowski, D., Cox, D.A., 2021, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Societal Consequences: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2021–3054, 6 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20213054.

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Year Published: 2021

Refinements to the Graves–Pitarka kinematic rupture generator, including a dynamically consistent slip‐rate function, applied to the 2019 Mw 7.1 Ridgecrest earthquake

The main objective of this study is to develop physics‐based constraints on the spatiotemporal variation of the slip‐rate function using a simplified dynamic rupture model. First, we performed dynamic rupture modeling of the 2019 Mw">MwMw 7.1 Ridgecrest, California, earthquake, to analyze the effects of depth‐dependent stress and...

Pitarka, Arben; Graves, Robert; Irikura, Kojiro; Miyakoshi, Ken; Wu, Changjiang; Kawase, Hiroshi; Rodgers, Arthur; McCallen, David

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Year Published: 2021

STEPS: Slip time earthquake path simulations applied to the San Andreas and Toe Jam Hill Faults to redefine geologic slip rate uncertainty

Geologic slip rates are a time-averaged measurement of fault displacement calculated over hundreds to million-year time scales and are a primary input for probabilistic seismic hazard analyses, which forecast expected ground shaking in future earthquakes. Despite their utility for seismic hazard calculations, longer-term geologic slip rates...

Hatem, Alexandra Elise; Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard W.; Scharer, Katherine; Field, Edward H.

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Year Published: 2021

Latest Quaternary slip rates of the San Bernardino strand of the San Andreas fault, southern California, from Cajon Creek to Badger Canyon

Four new latest Pleistocene slip rates from two sites along the northwestern half of the San Bernardino strand of the San Andreas fault suggest the slip rate decreases southeastward as slip transfers from the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault onto the northern San Jacinto fault zone. At Badger Canyon, offsets coupled with radiocarbon and...

Hampel, Andrea; David D. Oglesby; McGill, Sally F.; Owen, Lewis A.; Weldon, Ray J.; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Burgette, Reed J.

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Year Published: 2021

Electrical properties of carbon dioxide hydrate: Implications for monitoring CO2 in the gas hydrate stability zone

CO2 and CH4 clathrate hydrates are of keen interest for energy and carbon cycle considerations. While both typically form on Earth as cubic structure I (sI), we find that pure CO2 hydrate exhibits over an order of magnitude higher electrical conductivity (σ) than pure CH4 hydrate at geologically relevant temperatures. The...

Stern, Laura A.; Constable, S.; Lu, Ryan; Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Roberts, J. Murray

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Year Published: 2021

NGA-East Ground-Motion Characterization model part I: Summary of products and model development

In this article, we present an overview of the research project NGA-East, Next Generation Attenuation for Central and Eastern North America (CENA), and summarize the key methodology and products. The project was tasked with developing a new ground motion characterization (GMC) model for CENA. The final NGA-East GMC model includes a set of 17...

Goulet, Christine A.; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Kuehn, Nicolas; Al Atik, Linda; Youngs, Robert; Graves, Robert; Atkinson, Gail M.

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Year Published: 2021

Coastal Tree-Ring Records for Paleoclimate and Paleoenvironmental Applications in North America

For more than a century, tree-ring research has identified relationships between climatic and ecological conditions and tree growth to describe past environments and constrain future ecosystem vulnerabilities. Tree-ring records are frequently used as environmental proxies that extend knowledge of past climate and ecology on millennial scales. Many...

Tucker, Clay; Pearl, Jessie Kathleen

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Year Published: 2021

Evaluating spectral ratio methods for characterizing fundamental resonance peaks on flat sediments: An example from the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Eastern United States

Damaging ground motions from the 2011 Mw">Mw 5.8 Virginia earthquake were likely increased due to site amplification from the unconsolidated sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP), highlighting the need to understand site response on these widespread strata along the coastal regions of the eastern United States. The horizontal‐...

Schleicher, Lisa Sue; Pratt, Thomas L.

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Year Published: 2021

Earthquake source mechanisms and stress field variations associated with wastewater-induced seismicity in southern Kansas, USA

The strong increase of seismicity rates in the contiguous USA over the last 10 years is linked to the injection of huge amounts of wastewater from oil and gas production in unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. We calculated 549 moment tensors of induced earthquakes (MW ≤ 4.9) in southern Kansas to study their source mechanisms and...

Amemotou, Amandine; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Rubinstein, Justin; Bohnhoff, Marco

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Year Published: 2021

Strength recovery and sealing under hydrothermal conditions

While there is significant evidence for healing in natural faults, geothermal reservoirs, and lab experiments, the thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical interactions that influence healing are poorly understood. We present preliminary results of triaxial slide-hold-slide experiments to constrain rates and mechanisms of healing. Experiments...

Jeppson, Tamara Nicole; Lockner, David A.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Taron, Joshua M.

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Year Published: 2021

Creep on the Sargent Fault over the past 50 yr from alignment arrays with implications for slip transfer between the Calaveras and San Andreas Faults, California

The 55‐km‐long Sargent fault connects the creeping Calaveras fault with the locked San Andreas fault through the Santa Cruz Mountains west of Gilroy, California. The position of the Sargent fault between these two faults may have implications for slip transfer and strain accumulation between a creeping and locked fault. The detection and...

Mongovin, Daniel; Philibosian, Belle

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Year Published: 2021

ShakeMap operations, policies, and procedures

The US Geological Survey’s ShakeMap is used domestically and globally for post-earthquake emergency management and response, engineering analyses, financial instruments, and other decision-making activities. Recent developments in the insurance, reinsurance, and catastrophe bond sectors link payouts of potentially hundreds of millions of dollars...

Wald, David J.; Worden, Charles; Thompson, Eric M.; Hearne, Mike